The esophagus is a duct membranous muscle (muscular tube), located in the middlepart of the thorax, which extends from the pharynx to the stomach. Through the esophagus pass food to the stomach.
It is there to be precisely between the mouth and the stomach duct and allow food to reach this.
From the top to the portion where the esophagus joins the stomach there are aboutforty centimeters.
Esophagus starts at the neck, passes through all the chest and through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm to the abdomen.
It is usually a cavity virtual (i.e. that its walls are linked and only open when it passesthe food bowl).
The esophagus is formed by:
Mucosa: Composed of several layers of cells lining the esophagus on its inside. Thismucosa is continually renewed by the formation of new cells.
Muscular layer: is formed by an inner layer of smooth muscle cells, concentric and another outer layer of longitudinal muscle cells, which when they contract form Peristaltic waves which lead the globe food to the stomach.
Upper esophageal sphincter: separating the pharynx of the esophagus. It consists ofa striated muscle, i.e., volunteer, who started swallowing.
Lower esophageal sphincter: which separates the esophagus from the stomach. It isreally not a sphincter anatomical, but physiologically, there be no sphincter structures but do possess a high pressure when measured at rest. This sphincter, lowers histone normally elevated in response to various stimuli as a) the arrival of the primaryperistaltic wave, b) that the esophageal distention as it passes the cud (secondary peristalsis) and c) gastric distension.
Food from the esophagus into the stomach.
High resting pressure is maintained by contributions of nerves and muscles, while his relaxation occurs in response to neurogenic factors.
Its function is exclusively motor propels the food through the chest in its transit from the mouth to the stomach (does not perform functions of digestion or absorption).
The term gastro-oesophageal reflux is used by the doctor to name a disease that involves the return of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus, and the inconvenience and injury that accompanies this abnormal step.
We say that it is an abnormal passage, because the normal direction is that food bethrough the esophagus into the stomach and they mix with the juice, which is located in this body for digestion and then pass to the intestine where end up being digested and absorbed as nutrients for the person.
When for whatever reason there is this anomaly, the contents of the stomach consisting of hydrochloric acid, pepsin (enzyme Digest function) and other substances come into contact with the mucosa which is part of the esophagus. Mucosa which is not prepared to withstand the corrosive action of acid or pepsin degrading action, creating irritations and injuries in this part of the digestive tract.
Reflux: food is returned into the esophagus.
This disease, also is grouped under the term of acido-peptica along with other diseases disease such as peptic ulcer, since the agents that cause irritation and damage are substances that are present in the juice secreted by the stomach.